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            1. 為何人失戀后很難再愛一次
              文章來源: 文章作者: 發布時間:2006-09-30 08:59 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
              (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
              It may be better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all, but why is it so hard to find again? It may be that our brains are fixated on our former lovers, according to scientists.

              Researchers at Florida State University examined the nature of love by studying the brains and behaviour of male prairie voles, picked for their habit of lifelong monogamy and aggression1 towards other females once they have found a mate.

              The scientists found that males became devoted2 to females only after they had mated. The bond coincided with a huge release of the feelgood chemical dopamine inside their brains.

              Brandon Aragona, who led the study, demonstrated that dopamine was the voles' love drug by injecting the chemical into the brains of males who had not yet had sex with female companions. Immediately, they lost interest in other females and spent all of their time with their chosen one. Further experiments showed that dopamine restructured a part of the vole's brain called the nucleus3 accumbens, a region that many animals have, including humans. The change was so drastic that when paired-up males were introduced to new females, although their brains still produced dopamine on sight, the chemical was channelled into a different neural4 circuit that made them go cold towards the new female.

              "It seems that the first time they get together and the bond forms, it locks them into that monogamous behaviour ... You can take a female away from a male once he's formed a bond with her and two weeks later put him with a different female and he won't be remotely interested," said Dr Aragona, whose study appears in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

              The researchers said that while the love lives of voles differ from those of humans, the same brain structures work in much the same ways across different species. "Things are always going to be more complicated in humans because we have larger brains and are under different pressures, but the basic mechanisms5 are there", said Dr Aragona. 

                中文:

                或許愛過以后再失去也比根本不再去愛強,但為什么許多人在失戀后卻很難再愛一次?科學家最新的研究結果表明,這可能是人的大腦被一種叫做多巴胺的“癡情毒藥”鎖定在舊情人的身上。

                據《衛報 》12月6日報道,美國佛羅里達州大學的研究人員通過研究雄性田鼠的大腦和行為來探索人類愛情的本質。和人一樣,田鼠屬于終生單配偶動物(即一夫一妻制),且一旦有了配偶后就本能地對其它異性產生排斥。

                研究人員發現,雄性田鼠有了配偶后就會專注于對方,而有了配偶的田鼠開始大量分泌一種叫做多巴胺的化學物質(人腦也會分泌該物質)。負責此項研究的布蘭登·阿拉戈納博士證實,多巴胺就是讓雄性田鼠癡情的“毒藥”。

                當尚未與雌鼠發生性關系的雄鼠的大腦被注入多巴胺后,這些雄鼠很快就失去了對其它異性的興趣,而只是專注于自己心儀的雌鼠上。進一步實驗表明,多巴胺改變了田鼠大腦中核團區域(大腦核團區域的功能是維持情緒和目的性行為,人也有)的結構。當已有配偶的雄鼠被介紹給新的雌鼠時,盡管此時雄鼠的腦中還在繼續分泌多巴胺,但多巴胺會被導入另一個完全不同的神經中樞系統,使得雄鼠對新的雌鼠毫無興趣。

                阿拉戈納博士指出:“研究發現,雄鼠與雌鼠一旦結合在一起,它們就成為了單配偶動物。若將雄鼠與配偶分開,兩周后再讓它與新的雌鼠接觸,你會發現它對新的對象根本提不起興趣。”

                研究人員指出,盡管人的情感與田鼠的還有很大差別,但在不同的物種之間,相同的大腦結構也會有相似的運作方式。阿拉戈納博士說:“人類的情感會更加復雜,因為人腦體積更大且所處的環境也更復雜,但人腦與田鼠大腦基本的運作方式是相同的。”


              點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

              1 aggression WKjyF     
              n.進攻,侵略,侵犯,侵害
              參考例句:
              • So long as we are firmly united, we need fear no aggression.只要我們緊密地團結,就不必懼怕外來侵略。
              • Her view is that aggression is part of human nature.她認為攻擊性是人類本性的一部份。
              2 devoted xu9zka     
              adj.忠誠的,忠實的,熱心的,獻身于...的
              參考例句:
              • He devoted his life to the educational cause of the motherland.他為祖國的教育事業貢獻了一生。
              • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我們對這個題目進行了長時間的充分討論。
              3 nucleus avSyg     
              n.核,核心,原子核
              參考例句:
              • These young people formed the nucleus of the club.這些年輕人成了俱樂部的核心。
              • These councils would form the nucleus of a future regime.這些委員會將成為一個未來政權的核心。
              4 neural DnXzFt     
              adj.神經的,神經系統的
              參考例句:
              • The neural network can preferably solve the non- linear problem.利用神經網絡建模可以較好地解決非線性問題。
              • The information transmission in neural system depends on neurotransmitters.信息傳遞的神經途徑有賴于神經遞質。
              5 mechanisms d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8     
              n.機械( mechanism的名詞復數 );機械裝置;[生物學] 機制;機械作用
              參考例句:
              • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 這項研究將使人能夠直接地了解分子的機理。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
              • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解釋這兩臺機械裝置是如何工作的。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
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